Group 1: Countée narrates his internal struggle through mocking the predominantly white culture that dictates him.
Group 5: Carl Phillips implores his audience to allow Africa to be defined by her own voice.
Group 4: Phillips uses numbers as a motif for how outsiders see Africa in terms of statistics, rather than as the woman she is.
Group 2: The narrator is frustrated by her appreciation of Africa but her inability to be a part of Western society or her American culture
Group 3: The rhythm and rhyme scheme pair lines into couplets that reflect the speaker’s unending questions about his heritage.
Group 6: Phillips tells us to forget the stereotypical views of Africa and to turn our backs to it lest we feel obliged to help.